You did not finish creating your certificate. Failure to complete ALL the steps will result in a loss of this test score, and you will not receive credit for this course. Save your progress. Their primary function is to cut food. The two incisors on either side of the midline are known as central incisors. The two adjacent teeth to the central incisors are known as the lateral incisors.
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Incisors have a single root and a sharp incisal edge. Two in the maxillary arch and two in the mandibular area. They are behind and adjacent to the lateral incisors. Their main function is to tear food. Dentures may replace complete arches of the mouth or only a partial number of teeth. Bridges replace smaller spaces of missing teeth and use adjacent teeth to support the restoration. Dental implants may be used to replace a single tooth or a series of teeth. Though implants are the most expensive treatment option, they are often the most desirable restoration because of their aesthetics and function.
To improve the function of dentures, implants may be used as support. Tooth abnormalities may be categorized according to whether they have environmental or developmental causes. Environmental forces may affect teeth during development, destroy tooth structure after development, discolor teeth at any stage of development, or alter the course of tooth eruption. Developmental abnormalities most commonly affect the number, size, shape, and structure of teeth. Tooth abnormalities caused by environmental factors during tooth development have long-lasting effects. Enamel and dentin do not regenerate after they mineralize initially.
Enamel hypoplasia is a condition in which the amount of enamel formed is inadequate. Diffuse opacities of enamel does not affect the amount of enamel but changes its appearance. Affected enamel has a different translucency than the rest of the tooth. Demarcated opacities of enamel have sharp boundaries where the translucency decreases and manifest a white, cream, yellow, or brown color.
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All these may be caused by nutritional factors,  an exanthematous disease chicken pox , congenital syphilis ,   undiagnosed and untreated celiac disease ,    hypocalcemia , dental fluorosis , birth injury , preterm birth , infection or trauma from a deciduous tooth. In most cases, the enamel defects caused by celiac disease, which may be the only manifestation of this disease in the absence of any other symptoms or signs, are not recognized and mistakenly attributed to other causes, such as fluorosis.
Hypoplasia may also result from antineoplastic therapy. Tooth destruction from processes other than dental caries is considered a normal physiologic process but may become severe enough to become a pathologic condition.
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Attrition is the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from opposing teeth. Abrasion is the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from a foreign element. A common source of this type of tooth wear is excessive force when using a toothbrush. Erosion is the loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin.
Another important source of erosive acids are from frequent sucking of lemon juice. Abfraction is the loss of tooth structure from flexural forces. As teeth flex under pressure , the arrangement of teeth touching each other, known as occlusion , causes tension on one side of the tooth and compression on the other side of the tooth. This is believed to cause V-shaped depressions on the side under tension and C-shaped depressions on the side under compression. When tooth destruction occurs at the roots of teeth, the process is referred to as internal resorption , when caused by cells within the pulp, or external resorption , when caused by cells in the periodontal ligament.
Discoloration of teeth may result from bacteria stains, tobacco, tea, coffee, foods with an abundance of chlorophyll , restorative materials, and medications. Green stains also result from foods with chlorophyll or excessive exposure to copper or nickel. Amalgam, a common dental restorative material, may turn adjacent areas of teeth black or gray. Long term use of chlorhexidine , a mouthwash, may encourage extrinsic stain formation near the gingiva on teeth.
This is usually easy for a hygienist to remove. Systemic disorders also can cause tooth discoloration.
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria causes porphyrins to be deposited in teeth, causing a red-brown coloration. Blue discoloration may occur with alkaptonuria and rarely with Parkinson's disease.
Erythroblastosis fetalis and biliary atresia are diseases which may cause teeth to appear green from the deposition of biliverdin. Also, trauma may change a tooth to a pink, yellow, or dark gray color. Pink and red discolorations are also associated in patients with lepromatous leprosy. Some medications, such as tetracycline antibiotics, may become incorporated into the structure of a tooth, causing intrinsic staining of the teeth. Tooth eruption may be altered by some environmental factors. When eruption is prematurely stopped, the tooth is said to be impacted.
The most common cause of tooth impaction is lack of space in the mouth for the tooth. Tooth ankylosis occurs when the tooth has already erupted into the mouth but the cementum or dentin has fused with the alveolar bone. This may cause a person to retain their primary tooth instead of having it replaced by a permanent one. Some systemic disorders which may result in hyperdontia include Apert syndrome , cleidocranial dysostosis , Crouzon syndrome , Ehlers—Danlos syndrome , Gardner's syndrome , and Sturge—Weber syndrome.
Microdontia of a single tooth is more likely to occur in a maxillary lateral incisor. The second most likely tooth to have microdontia are third molars. Macrodontia of all the teeth is known to occur in pituitary gigantism and pineal hyperplasia. It may also occur on one side of the face in cases of hemifacial hyperplasia.
There are many types of dental anomalies seen in cleft lip and palate CLP patients. Both sets of dentition may be affected however they are commonly seen in the affected side.
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Most frequently, missing teeth, supernumerary or discoloured teeth can be seen however enamel dysplasia, discolouration and delayed root development is also common. In children with cleft lip and palate, the lateral incisor in the alveolar cleft region has the highest prevalence of dental developmental disorders. By correctly coordinating management invasive treatment procedures can be prevented resulting in successful and conservative treatment. There have been a plethora of research studies to calculate prevalence of certain dental anomalies in CLP populations however a variety of results have been obtained.
In a study evaluating dental anomalies in Brazilian cleft patients, male patients had a higher incidence of CLP, agenesis, and supernumerary teeth than did female patients. In cases of complete CLP, the left maxillary lateral incisor was the most commonly absent tooth. Supernumerary teeth were typically located distal to the cleft. Missing teeth were observed in Supernumerary teeth were observed in The incidence of microdontia, dilaceration, and hypoplasia was significantly higher in bilateral CLP patients than in unilateral CLP patients, and none of the anomalies showed any significant sexual dimorphism.
It is therefore evident that patients with cleft lip and palate may present with a variety of dental anomalies. It is essential to assess the patient both clinically and radiographically in order to correctly treat and prevent progression of any dental problems. It is also useful to note that patients with a cleft lip and palate automatically score a 5 on the IOTN index for orthodontic need and therefore are eligible for orthodontic treatment, liaising with an orthodontist is vital in order coordinate and plan treatment successfully.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses of tooth or teeth, see Tooth disambiguation. Main article: Dental anatomy. Main article: Tooth enamel. Main article: Dentin. Main article: Cementum. Main article: Pulp tooth. Main article: Tooth development. Main article: Tooth eruption.
Mouth and Teeth Anatomy
See also: Tooth pathology. Main article: Dental plaque. Main article: Dental caries. Main article: Oral hygiene. Main article: Tooth discoloration. Dentistry portal. Anatomy, a regional atlas of the human body. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. Archived from the original on November 21, American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
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1. Brush regularly but not aggressively
New York State Dental Journal. Created May 8, , revised 16 January Research Support, Non-U. And it goes beyond getting my teeth drilled at the dentist office—my dentist really likes classical music. After my crying spell stopped, I gritted my teeth , tucked my crutch under my right arm, and turned to my husband. Verdict leaves supporters cheering and opponents gnashing their teeth in frustration. For a while we sit quietly digging through pieces of fish, the tiny bones getting stuck in our teeth. She just rolled out from beneath that boat with a dagger between her teeth!
Carlaw sighed, and stretched out his hand toward his sister; showed his teeth in a fierce grin, and shook a fist at her. To overcome this I made several blades with teeth as shown in the sketch. In spite of this, from the setting of the sun till long after its rising, all through the dark hours her teeth chattered. Yet she looked again at his shack, with her lower lip in the bite of her teeth. Plural form teeth is an instance of i-mutation.
Application to tooth-like parts of other objects saws, combs, etc. A hard structure, embedded in the jaws of the mouth, that functions in chewing.
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