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SM: Writing prose fiction the way I do is always pretty hard work because I pay so much attention to word-choice and to rhythm; all the time I was writing I was reading it back aloud to make sure it flowed properly. It just has more humour and elegance than some of the other material, and it really allowed me to let my peculiar imagination run wild. Were you tempted to write more of yourself into the novel? SM: Actually, the only section that was pre-written and imported into the book was the Endymion play.

I started off with a draft of the Kit Morley section, which was originally written as a series of letters, rather than a journal, and then followed that with the Elizabethan Diana Regina material, though both of these went through frequent, hefty revisions, especially as I was fitting the book together. Then probably the Kit Morley section got the most revision of all, as I attempted to fit all the other material into it. I was very impressed with your article on the Decadents in the third issue of Dodgem Logic.

Any favourite personalities, works or anecdotes from that era? SM: Thanks for the kind words. I just found the s fascinating, especially for its resonances with the s - new styles of art, writing and music, drugs, dandyism and a disregard for convention, a feeling of renaissance and a lot of that applies to the Elizabethan period too. Of the poets, there was John Barlas, who took a dislike to the Houses of Parliament and shot [at the building] with a pistol; or poor Edward Dowson, who laid his heart at the feet of an year-old girl and then waited until she was legal, at which point she promptly married a tailor.

Absinthe and tuberculosis carried him off soon afterwards. And there was Sarah Bernhardt on the stage, and Alphonse Mucha producing that wonderfully lush art nouveau illustration. How could I resist paying a literary tribute to guys like that? Any interesting recent findings? And sometimes I just write short fantasy stories to entertain myself and my friends. I found your essay in Strange Attractor Journal 2 fascinating, with the combination of artistry, rivalry, and perhaps well-meaning in some cases misplaced and incomplete information that went into early Western interpretations.

Any more to say on this? What do you yourself think the music of the Moon sounds like? I tend to think of it as something cool and crystalline and distant, probably played on a solo instrument, like the lute, harpsichord or the Chinese zheng, but very complex… perhaps something like a slow Scarlatti harpsichord sonata, but played a very long way off, at the edge of hearing. Mono version, of course. Always very fond of Jeff Beck. Somnium is available via Strange Attractor Press now. And then she told him he should stoke the fire and strip down to the waist, so she could paint Egyptian hieroglyphics foully on his chest that came from ancient Karnak, and several words in Greek, that evil reeked, and certain Hebrew letters too, that seemed to him the worse, for they were angel-script and spoke of naught but demons.

And when she had, she stripped herself quite naked, all unblushing, and told him he should paint the same on her; and how he trembled as he brushed those burning words across her soft young breasts. Then standing hand in hand, they called upon the name, Opusculum Mercurialis.

Or he called it by its name, at least, and she sang noxious incantations hardly heard since golden gloried Rome fell from its might and crumpled like a craven to the conquering Christian horde. She clutched it close and made it fast with certain noxious recitations learned in Smyrna, that orient city scented all with myrrh and unbecoming foulness, and painted symbols on its back and front that would not let it get away, back to its own and other world, no matter how it sorely wished to. Then, without the merest thought of covering up her nudity, she took a pace or two toward the fireplace, opened the little, innocent-looking book and began to read aloud such evil things he thought he would expire.

How Remus had been sodomised to death by Romulus while giant birds of prey pecked out his bleeding lungs until he had no breath to scream. How handsome Antinous, because he was too loved, was cut in tiny pieces by old Hadrian his lover, fried with onions, most sacred plant of Egypt, and eaten by the emperor, all his blood-sauce drunk as well, and bones boiled up for soup, till nothing did remain. And how Pyriphlegethon, the fiery river, rises up from hell each night, to burn the innocent as they pray to all their innocent Gods, who quite refuse to save them.

And of the sex-life of the dead, decayed, which was more lewd than all the whores of Paris could imagine, put together. Of living stones that turned to fiery lions, all-hungry in the all-too evil night; of gates to other worlds where everything was worms, and maggots and corruption, stinks and blight. Of oceans turned to crimson by the blood of sacrifice, and all for nothing but the charm of coloured death. Of sepulchres that glow on moonless nights and spiders twice as large as Athens ever was.

And hordes of giant rats that ate the sun itself when it settled on the horizon. So many things the slim, unwholesome volume seemed then to contain, he knew they would not all fit in, and somehow it was more than first it did appear… so many times more over. Mter nearly a year, Jung began to write again in the Black Books in I9I5, with a further series of fantasies. He had already completed the handwritten draft of Liber Primus and Liber Secundus. At the beginning of I9I6, Jung experienced a striking series of parapsychological events in his house. In I, he narrated this event to Cary de Angulo later Baynes.

She recorded it as follows: Around five o'clock in the afternoon on Sunday the front doorbell began ringing frantically Everyone immediately looked to see who was there, but there was no one in sight. I was sitting near the doorbell, and not heard it but saw it moving. We all simply stared at one another. The atmosphere was thick, believe me! Then I knew something had to happen. The whole house was as if there was a crowd present, crammed full of spirits. They were packed deep right up to the door and the air was so thick it was scarcely possible to breathe. As for myself, I was all aquiver with the question: "For God's sake, what in the world is this?

Septem Sermones. Then it began to flow out of me, and in the course of three evenings the thing was written. As soon as I took up the pen, the whole ghastly assemblage evaporated. The room quieted and the atmosphere cleared. The haunting was over. I27 Their trip had evidently not been successful.

The Septem Sermones ad Mortuos is a culmination of the fantasies of this period. It is a psychological cosmology cast in the form of a gnostic creation myth. In Jung's fantasies, a new God had been born in his soul, the God who is the son of the frogs, Abraxas. Jung understood this symbolically. He saw this figure as representing. II9 Memories, p. On the formation of the Club, see my Cult Fictions: C. Jung: Some memories and reflections," Inward Light 35 , p. Directly after the beginning of the war" p. The main script is in Jung's hand, and 'of the Red Book' was added by someone else.

Not until in Answer to] ob did Jung elaborate on this theme in public. Jung had studied the literature on Gnosticism in the course of his preparatory reading for Transformations and Symbols of the Libido. In January and October , while on military service, he studied the works of the Gnostics.

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After writing the Septem Sermones in the Black Books, Jung recopied it in a calligraphic script into a separate book, slightly rearranging the sequence. He added the following inscription under the title: "The seven instructions of the dead.

Cicero, The Dream of Scipio - Somnium Scipionis () pp

Written by Basilides in Alexandria, the city where the East touches the West. He recalled that he wrote it on the occasion of the founding of the Psychological Club, and regarded it as a gift to Edith Rockefeller McCormick for founding the Club. Presenting a copy to Alphonse Maeder, he wrote: I could not presume to put my name to it, but chose instead the name of one of those great minds of the early Christian era which Christianity obliterated. It fell quite unexpectedly into my lap like a ripe fruit at a time of great stress and has kindled a light of hope and comfort for me in my bad hours.

This was the first sketch of the "Systema Munditotius. On the back of it, he wrote in English: "This is the first mandala I constructed in the year , wholly unconscious of what it meant. The Systema Munditotius is a pictorial cosmology of the Sermones. Around August, he wrote to Smith Ely Jeliffe that his military service had taken him completely away from his work and that, on his return, he hoped to finish a long paper about the types. He concluded the letter by writing: "With us everything is unchanged and quiet. Everything else is swallowed by the war. The psychosis is still increasing, going on and on.

From August 20, he drew a mandala on most days. This gave him the feeling that he had taken a photograph of each day and he observed how these manda-. He recalled that he received a letter from "this Dutch woman that got on my nerves terribly. This awoke a doubt in him whether his fantasies were really spontaneous and natural. On the next day; he drew a mandala, and a piece of it was broken off, leaving the symmetry: Only now did I gradually come to what the mandala really is: "Formation, transformation, the eternal mind's eternal recreation.

My mandala images were cryptograms on the state of my self, which were delivered to me each day. A glowing tripod will finally show you that you are in the deepest, most deepest ground. By its light you will see the Mothers: the one sits, others stand and walk, as it may chance. Formation, transformation the eternal mind's eternal recreation. Covered in images of all creatures, they do not see you, since they only see shades. However, in a subsequent unpublished letter from November 21,, while at Chateau d'Oex, Jung wrote that "M.

Moltzer has again disturbed me with letters. He noted that it was during this period that a living idea of the self first came to him: "The self, I thought, was like the monad which I am, and which is my world. The mandala represents this monad, and corresponds to the microcosmic nature of the soul. The mandala became the expression of all paths. See note 81, p. January 19,, Letters I, pp. Sending a copy of the Sermones to Jolande Jacobi, Jung described them as "a curiosity from the workshop of the unconscious" October 7, , JA.

Burnham,je tife: American psychoanalyst and physician, p. There also exists an undated painting by Moltzer that appears to be a quadrated mandala, which she described in brief accompanying notes as ''A pictorial presentation of Individuation or of the Individuation process" Library; Psychological Club, Zurich. See note 29, p. The Draft had contained fantasies from October to February In the winter of , Jung wrote a fresh manuscript called Scrutinies, which began where he had left off In this, he transcribed fantasies from April until June As in the first two books of Liber N ovus, Jung interspersed the fantasies with interpretive commentaries.

I42 He included the Sermones in this material, and now added Philemon's commentaries on each sermon. In these, Philemon stressed the compensatory nature of his teaching: he deliberately stressed precisely those conceptions that the dead lacked. Scrutinies effectively forms Liber Tertius of Liber N ovus.

The complete sequence of the text would thus be:. The fantasies in the Black Books became more intermittent. I43 This contains Jung's vision of the reborn God, culminating in the portrayal of Abraxas. He realized that much of what was given to him in the earlier part of the book that is, Liber Primus and Liber secundus was actually given to him by Philemon.

I44 He realized that there was a prophetic wise old man in him, to whom he was not identical. This represented a critical dis identification. On January 17, , Jung wrote to J. Lang: The work on the unconscious has to happen first and foremost for us ourselves. Our patients profit from it indirectly. The danger consists in the prophet's delusion which often is the result of dealing with the unconscious. It is the devil who says: Disdain all reason and science, mankind's highest powers.

That is never appropriate even though we are forced to acknowledge [the existence ofJ the irrational. I45 Jung's critical task in "working over" his fantasies was to differentiate the voices and characters. In Scrutinies, it is not Jung's "I" but Philemon who speaks them. In the Black Books, the main figure with whom Jung has dialogues is his soul. In some sections of Liber N ovus, this is changed to the serpent and the bird.

In one conversation in January , his soul explained to him that when the Above and Below are not united, she falls into three parts-a serpent, the human soul, and the bird or heavenly soul, which visits the Gods. Thus Jung's revision here can be seen to reflect his understanding of the tripartite nature of his soul. In March he wrote to J. I very much agree with you that we.

I have already been working on this myself for a long time, and also have had ample opportunity to compare my experiences at least partially with those of others. That's why I was very pleased to hear pretty much the same views from you. I am glad that you have discovered all on your own this area of work which is ready to be tackled. Up to now, I lacked workers. I am happy that you want to join forces with me. I consider it very important that you extricate your own material uninfluenced from the unconscious, as carefully as possible.

My material is very voluminous, very complicated, and in part very graphic, up to almost completely worked through clarifications. But what I completely lack is comparative modern material. Zarathustra is too strongly consciously formed. The Content Liber N ovus thus presents a series of active imaginations together with Jung's attempt to understand their significance.

This work of understanding encompasses a number of interlinked threads: an attempt to understand himself and to integrate and develop the various components of his personality; an attempt to understand the structure of the human personality in general; an attempt to understand the relation of the individual to present-day society and to the community of the dead; an attempt to understand the psychological and historical effects of Christianity; and an attempt to grasp the future religious development of the West. Jung discusses many other themes in the work, including the nature of self-knowledge; the nature of the soul; the relations of thinking and feeling and the psychological types; the relation of inner and outer masculinity and femininity; the uniting of opposites; solitude; the value of scholarship and learning; the status of science; the significance of symbols and how they are to be understood; the meaning of the war; madness, divine madness, and psychiatry; how the Imitation of Christ is to be understood today; the death of God; the historical significance of Nietzsche; and the relation of magic and reason.

The overall theme of the book is how Jung regains his soul and overcomes the contemporary malaise of spiritual alienation. This is ultimately achieved through enabling the rebirth of a new image of God in his soul and developing a new worldview in the form of a psychological and theological cosmology. Liber N ovus presents the prototype of Jung's conception of the individuation process, which he held to be the universal form of individual psychological development.

Liber Novus itself can be understood on one hand as depicting Jung's individuation process, and on the other hand as his elaboration of this concept as a general psychological schema. At the beginning of the book, Jung refinds his soul and then embarks on a sequence of fantasy adventures, which form a consecutive narrative. He realized that until then, he had served the spirit of the time, characterized by use and value. In addition to this, there existed a spirit of the depths, which led to the things of the soul. In terms of Jung's later. The reference is to Mephistopheles' statement in Faust, See below, p.

Thus this period could be seen as a return to the values of personality NO. The chapters follow a particular format: they begin with the exposition of dramatic visual fantasies. In them Jung encounters a series of figures in various settings and enters into conversation with them. He is confronted with unexpected happenings and shocking statements. He then attempts to understand what had transpired, and to formulate the significance of these events and statements into general psychological conceptions and maxims.

Jung held that the significance of these fantasies was due to the fact that they stemmed from the mythopoeic imagination which was missing in the present rational age. The task of individuation lay in establishing a dialogue with the fantasy figures-or contents of the collective unconsciousand integrating them into consciousness, hence recovering the value of the mythopoeic imagination which had been lost to the modern age, and thereby reconciling the spirit of the time with the spirit of the depth.

This task was to form a leitmotif of his subsequent scholarly work. He noted that when individuals annexed the contents of the collective psyche and regarded them as personal attributes, they experienced extreme states of superiority and inferiority: He borrowed the term "godlikeness" from Goethe and Alfred Adler to characterize this state, which arose from fusing the personal and collective psyche, and was one of the dangers of analysis. Jung wrote that it was a difficult task to differentiate the personal and collective psyche.

One of the factors one came up against was the persona-one's "mask" or "role. Two possibilities arose: one could attempt to regressively restore persona and return to the prior state, but it was impossible to get rid of the unconscious. Alternatively, one could accept the condition of godlikeness. However, there was a third way: the hermeneutic treatment of creative fantasies. This resulted in a synthesis of the individual with the collective psyche, which In , Jung wrote several essays and a short book in which revealed the individual lifeline.

This was the process of indihe began to attempt to translate some of themes of Liber N ovus viduation. In a subsequent undated revision of this paper, Jung into contemporary psychological language, and to reflect on the introduced the notion of the anima, as a counterpart to that of significance and the generality of his activity: Significantly, in these the persona.

He regarded both of these as "subject-imagoes. A full account of these papers is beyond collective unconscious. The following overview highlights The vivid description of the vicissitudes of the state of elements that link most directly with Liber N ovus. The notion of the differenconcerned with establishing a structural account of general tiation of the persona and its analysis corresponds to the opening human functioning and of psychopathology. In addition to his section of Liber Novus, where Jung sets himself apart from his earlier theory of complexes, we see that he had already formulated role and achievements and attempts to reconnect with his soul.

The differentiation of and prospective function of dreams, and of the synthetic and the personal and impersonal unconscious provided a theoretical constructive approach to fantasies. While he continued to expand understanding of Jung's mythological fantasies: it suggests that he and develop these conceptions in detail, a new project emerges did not view them as stemming from his personal unconscious here: the attempt to provide a temporal account of higher devel- but from the inherited collective psyche. If so, his fantasies opment, which he termed the individuation process.

This was a stemmed from a layer of the psyche that was a collective human pivotal theoretical result of his self-experimentation. The full inheritance, and were not simply idiosyncratic or arbitrary. The first was titled ''Adaptation. The In , he presented a lecture to the association for analytical "inner" was understood to designate the unconscious.

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Adaptation psychology entitled "The structure of the unconscious," which to the "inner" led to the demand for individuation, which was was first published in a French translation in Flournoy's Archives contrary to adaptation to others. Answering this demand and de Psych 0 logie. Individuation was for the personal unconscious were developed and acquired in the the few. Those who were insufficiently creative should rather course of one's lifetime, the collective psyche was inherited. I5I In this reestablish collective conformity with a society: The individual 2.

After his separation with Freud, Jung found that Flournoy was of continued support to him. ISO Ibid. Audio-verbal types usually ones, as society had a "right to expect realizable values. Others at such times with social conformity to pursue his "individuation" had led him simply hear their "other" voice Still rarer, but equally to the view that he had to produce socially realizable values as an valuable, is automatic writing, direct or with the planchette. This led to a dilemma: would the form in which Jung embodied these new values in Liber N ovus be socially acceptable Once these fantasies had been produced and embodied, two and recognizable?

This commitment to the demands of society approaches were possible: creative formulation and understanding. Each needed the other, and both were necessary to produce the separated Jung from the anarchism of the Dadaists. The second talk was on "Individuation and collectivity. For some people, Jung noted, it was silnple to note the "other" related by guilt. Society demanded imitation.

Through the process of imitation, one could gain access to values that were one's own. This of those of his patients whom Jung had now encouraged to embark depiction of inner dialogues and the means of evoking fantasies on similar processes of development. The claim that this process in a waldng state represents Jung's own undertaldng in the Black evoked the patient's preexisting values was a counter to the Books. The interplay of creative formulation and understanding corresponds to Jung's work in Liber Novus. Jung did not publish charge of suggestion. In November, while on military service at Herisau, Jung wrote this paper.

He later remarked that he never finished his work on a paper on "The transcendent function," which was published the transcendent function because he did it only half-heartedly '60 In , Jung published a short book with a long title: The only in There, he depicted the method of eliciting and developing fantasies that he later termed active imagination, and Psychology of the Unconscious Processes: An Overview of the Modern explained its therapeutic rationale. This paper can be viewed as Theory and Method of Analytical Psychology.

In his preface, dated an interim progress report on Jung's self-experimentation, and December , he proclaimed the psychological processes that accompanied the war had brought the problem of the chaotic may profitably be considered as a preface to Liber Novus. Jung noted that the new attitude gained from analysis became unconscious to the forefront of attention. However, the psychology obsolete. Unconscious materials were needed to supplement the of the individual corresponded to the psychology of the nation, conscious attitude, and to correct its one-sidedness.

But because and only the transformation of the attitude of the individual energy tension was low in sleep, dreams were inferior expressions could bring about cultural renewal. Thus other sources had to be turned interconnection between individual and collective events that was to, namely; spontaneous fantasies. A recently recovered dream at the center of Liber Novus. For Jung, the conjunction between book contains a series of dreams from to What was now required was and that these two streams were generally independent.

Jung described his technique for inducing such spontaneous to work out this connection in more detail. Jung noted that after one had analyzed and integrated fantasies: "The training consists first of all in systematic exercises for eliminating critical attention, thus producing a vacuum in the contents of the personal unconscious, one came up against consciousness. The provided an exposition of the collective, suprapersonal, absolute aim was to allow fantasy free play; without departing from the unconscious-these terms being used interchangeably Jung initial affect in a free associative process.

This led to a concrete argued that one needed to separate oneself from the unconscious or symbolic expression of the mood, which had the result of by presenting it visibly as something separate from one. It was bringing the affect nearer to consciousness, hence making it more vital to differentiate the I from the non- I, namely; the collective understandable.

Doing this could have a vitalizing effect. Individuals psyche or absolute unconscious. To do this, "man must necessarily stand upon firm Jeet in his I -function; that is, he must fulfil his duty could draw, paint, or sculpt, depending on their propensities: Visual types should concentrate on the expectation that an inner image will be produced. As a rule such a fantasy-image. A planchette is a small wooden board on coasters used to facilitate automatic writing.

He added the following definition of this figure: "By shadow I understand the 'negative' side of the personality, the sum of all those hidden unpleasant qualities, the insufficiently developed functions and the contents of the personal unconscious" Ibid. Jung described this phase of the individuation process as the encounter with the shadow see CW 9, pt. This distinction depicts his experience at this time.

He wrote that Friedrich Schiller had claimed that the approximation of these two worlds was through art. By contrast, Jung argued, "I am of the opinion that the union of rational and irrational truth is to be found not so much in art as in the symbol per se; for it is the essence of the symbol to contain both the rational and irrational.

While the compensatory function of the unconscious to terms with activated residues of our ancestral history. The was always present, the symbol-creating function was present only differentiation of the personal from the nonpersonal resulted in when we were willing to recognize it. Here, we see him continuing to eschew viewing his productions as art. It was not art but symbols a release of energy. The recognition and These comments also mirror his activity: his attempt to differentiate the various characters which appeared, and to recuperation of this symbol-creating power is portrayed in Liber "consolidate them as psychological realities.

It depicts Jung's attempt to understand the psychological figures had a psychological reality in their own right, and were not nature of symbolism and to view his fantasies symbolically. He merely subjective figments, was the main lesson that he attributed concluded that what was unconscious at any given epoch was only relative, and changing. What was required now was the to the fantasy figure of Elijah: psychic objectivity. It was thus a historical with the unconscious, and expressed in a literary and symbolic necessity to acknowledge the irrational as a psychological factor.

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In The Psychology of the Unconscious Processes, Jung developed his the Society of Psychical Research, of which he was an honorary conception of the psychological types. He noted that it was a member, on "The psychological foundations of the belief in common development that the psychological characteristics of spirits. By what he termed the law collective unconscious became active. In the first, it became of enantiodromia, or the reversal into the opposite, the other activated through a crisis in an individual's life and the collapse hll1ction entered in, namely; feeling for the introvert, and thinking of hopes and expectations.

In the second, it becalne activated at for the extravert. These secondary functions were found in the times of great social, political, and religious upheaval. At such unconscious. The development of the contrary function led to moments, the factors suppressed by the prevailing attitudes individuation.

As the contrary function was not acceptable to accumulate in the collective unconscious. Strongly intuitive consciousness, a special technique was required to come to terms individuals become aware of these and try to translate them with it, namely the production of the transcendent function. The into communicable ideas. If they succeeded in translating the unconscious was a danger when one was not at one with it. But unconscious into a c01nmunicable language, this had a redeenling with the establishment of the transcendent function, the dis- effect.

The contents of the unconscious had a disturbing effect. This rebalancing gave access to the productive and In the first situation, the collective unconscious might replace beneficent aspects of the unconscious. The unconscious contained reality; which is pathological. In the second situation, the individual the wisd01n and experience of untold ages, and thus formed an may feel disorientated, but the state is not pathological. This unparalleled guide. The development of the contrary function differentiation suggests that Jung viewed his own experience as appears in the "Mysterium" section of Liber N OVUS.

Thus the book, in which Jung asks his soul to tell him what she sees and his initial fear of impending insanity in I9I3 lay in his failure to the Ineaning of his fantasies. The unconscious is here viewed as a realize this distinction. In I9I8, he presented a series of seminars to the Psychological source of higher wisdom. He concluded the essay by indicating the personal and experiential nature of his new conceptions: "Our age Club on his work on typology; and was engaged in extensive is seeking a new spring of life.

I found one and drank of it and the scholarly research 0n this subject at this time. He developed water tasted good. As regards the working over of thenles of Liber N ovus, the most important section was chapter 5, "The type problem in poetry. This forms one of the The contents of this unconscious were what Jung in Transformations and Symbols of the Libido had called typical myths or primordial images.

He described these "dominants" as "the ruling powers, the Gods, that is, images of dominating laws and principles, average regularities in the sequence of images, that the brain has received from the sequence of secular processes. Particularly important was the "detachment ofthe mythological or collective psychological contents. This sentence appeared only in the first edition of Jung's book. Jung presented detailed analysis of the issue of the resolution of the problem of opposites in Hinduism, Taoism, Meister Eckhart, and, in present times, in the work of Carl Spitteler.

This chapter can also be read in terms of a meditation on some of the historical sources that directly informed his conceptions in Liber Novus.

Moon in fiction

It also heralded the introduction of an important method. Rather than directly discussing the issue of the reconciliation of opposites in Liber Novus, he sought out historical analogies and commented upon them. In , the "self" emerged as a psychological concept. Jung defined it as follows: Inasmuch as the I is only the center of my field of consciousness, it is not identical with the totality of my psyche, being merely a complex among other complexes. Hence I discriminate between the I and the self, since the I is only the subject of my consciousness, while the self is the subject of my totality: hence it also includes the unconscious psyche.

In this sense the self would be an ideal greatness which embraces and includes the I. In unconscious fantasy the self often appears as the super-ordinated or ideal personality, as Faust is in relation to Goethe and Zarathustra to Nietzsche. He argued that the soul possessed qualities that were complementary to the persona, containing those qualities that the conscious attitude lacked. This complementary character of the soul also affected its sexual character, so that a man had a feminine soul, or anima, and a woman had a masculine soul, or animus. He also noted that the soul gave rise to images that were assumed to be worthless fronl the rational perspective.

There were four ways of using them: The first possibility of malcing use of them is artistic, if one is in anyway gifted in that direction; a second is philosophical speculation; a third is quasi;religious, leading to heresy and the founding of sects; and a fourth way of employing the dynamis of these images is to squander it in every form of licentiousness. This necessity accounts for Jung's rejection of the alternatives. In the subsequent Black Books, he continued to elaborate his "mythology:" The figures developed and transformed into one another.

The differentiation of the figures was accompanied by their coalescence, as he came to regard them as aspects of underlying components of the personality: On January 5,, he had a conversation with his soul concerning both his vocation and Liber Novus: [I:J I feel that I must speal to you.

Why do you not let me sleep, as I am tired? I feel that the disturbance comes from. What induces you to keep me awal e? It is a great and difficult work There is no time to sleep, if you find no time during the day to relnain in the work [I:] But I had no idea that something of this kind was talcing place. Now you must go to a higher level of consciousness.

Speald [Soul:] You should listen: to no longer be a Christian is easy: But what next? For more is yet to come. Everything is waiting for you. And you? You remain silent and have nothing to say: But you should speak. Why have you received the revelation? You should not hide it.

You concern yourself with the form? Is the form important, when it is a matter of revelation? That would be a misfortune. And who would understand it? You should not breal up a marriage, namely the marriage with me, no person should supplant me I want to rule alone.

From whence do you tal e the right for such a presumption? I could just as well say, you came first, but above all your calling C01nes first. No one knows it as you do. There is no one who could say it as well as you could. I speal the truth. I75 His soul here pointedly urged him to publish his material, at which he balked. Three days later, his soul informed him that the new religion "expresses itself only in the transformation of human relations. Relations do not let themselves be replaced by the deepest knowledge. Moreover a religion does not consist only in knowledge, but at its visible kvel in a new ordering of human affairs.

Therefore expect no further knowledge from me. You know everything that is to be known about the manifested revelation, but you do not yet live everything that is to be lived at this time. However, it is dark to me, how the knowledge could be transformed into life. You must teach me this. It is not as rational as you are inclined to think The way is symbolic. I76 Ibid. In a seminar the following year, Jung took up the theme of the relation of individual relations to religion: "No individual can exist without individual.

Individual relations lay the form of the invisible Church" Notes on the Seminar in Analytical Psychology. During this period the themes of the psychology of religion and the relation of religion to psychology became increasingly prominent in his work, starting from his seminar in Polzeath in Cornwall in He attempted to develop a psychology of the religious-making process.

Rather than proclaiming a new prophetic revelation, his interest lay in the psychology of religious experiences. The task was to depict the translation and transposition of the numinous experience of individuals into symbols, and eventually into the dogmas and creeds of organized religions, and, finally, to study the psychological function of such symbols.

For such a psychology of the religion-making process to succeed, it was essential that analytical psychology, while providing an affirmation of the religious attitude, did not succumb to becoming a creed. I77 In , Jung wrote a paper on "The relation of analytical psychology to poetic art works. Examples of such symbolic works were the second part of Goethe's Faust and Nietzsche's zarathustra. He held that these works stemmed from the collective unconscious.

In such instances, the creative process consisted in the unconscious activation of an archetypal image. The archetypes released in us a voice that was stronger than our own: Whoever speaks in primordial images speaks with a thousand voices; he enthrals and overpowers In describing the genesis of such symbolic works, Jung seemingly had his own activities in mind. Thus while Jung refused to regard Liber Novus as "art," his reflections on its composition were nevertheless a critical source of his subsequent conceptions and theories of art.

The implicit question that this paper raised was whether psychology could now serve this function of educating the spirit of the age and compensating the one-sidedness of the present. From this period onward, he came to conceive of the task of his psychology in precisely such a manner. Publication Deliberations From onward, in addition to discussions with Emma Jung and Toni Wolff, Jung had extensive discussions with Cary Baynes and Wolfgang Stockmayer concerning what to do with Liber N ovus, and around its potential publication. Because these discussions took place when he was still working on it, they are.

Cary Fink was born in She studied at Vassar College, where she was taught by Kristine Mann, who became one of Jung's earliest followers in the United States. In , she left him, and went to Zurich with Kristine Mann. She entered analysis with Jung. She never practiced analysis, and Jung highly respected her critical intelligence.

In , she married Peter Baynes. They were subsequently divorced in Jung asked her to make a fresh transcription of Liber N ovus, because he had added a lot of material since the previous transcription. She undertook this in and , when Jung was in Africa. Her typewritecwas heavy, so she first copied it by hand and then typed it out.

These notes recount her discussions with Jung and are written in the form of letters to him, but were not sent. In another book of Meyrink's the "White Dominican," you said he made use of exactly the same symbolism that had come to you in the first vision that revealed to your unconscious. Furthermore you said, he had spoken of a "Red Book" which contained certain mysteries and the book that you are writing about the unconscious, you have called the "Red Book".

Taking his cue from William James, among others, Jung contrasted directed thinking and fantasy thinking. The former was verbal and logical, while the latter was passive, associative, and imagistic. The former was exemplified by science and the latter by mythology. Jung claimed that the ancients lacked a capacity for directed thinking, which was a modern acquisition. Fantasy thinking took place when directed thinking ceased. Traniformations and Symbols of the Libido was an extended study of fantasy thinking, and of the continued presence of mythological themes in the dreams and fantasies of contemporary individuals.

Jung reiterated the anthropological equation of the prehistoric, the primitive, and the child. He held that the elucidation of current-day fantasy thinking in adults would concurrently shed light on the thought of children, savages, and prehistoric peoples. For Jung, myths were symbols of the libido and they depicted its typical movements. He used the comparative method of anthropology to draw together a vast panoply of myths, and then subjected them to analytic interpretation. He later termed his use of the comparative method "amplification.

Following Jacob Burckhardt, Jung termed such typical myths "primordial images" Urbilder. One particular myth was given a central role: that of the hero. For Jung, this represented the life of the individual, attempting to become independent and to free himself from the mother. He interpreted the incest motif as an attempt to return to the mother to be reborn. Dreams were attempts to solve the individual's moral conflicts. As such, they did not merely point to the past, but also prepared the way for the future. Maeder was developing Flournoy's views of the subconscious creative imagination.

Jung was working along similar lines, and adopted Maeder's positions. For Jung and Maeder, this alteration of the conception of the dream brought with it an alteration of all other phenomena associated with the unconscious. In his preface to the revision of Transformations and Symbols ofthe Libido, Jung wrote that the work was written in I9II, when he was thirty-six: "The time is a critical one, for it marks the beginning of the second half of life, when a metanoia, a mental transformation, not infrequently occurs.

After completing the work, he realized the significance of what it meant to live without a myth. One without a myth "is like one uprooted, having no true link either with the past, or with the ancestral life which continues within him, or yet with contemporary human society. I was driven to ask myself in all seriousness: "what is the myth you are living? So in the most natural way, I took it upon myself to get to know "my" myth, and I regarded this as the task of tasks-for-so I told myself-how could 1, when treating my patients, malce due allowance for the personal factor, for my personal equation, which is yet so necessary for a knowledge of the other person, if I was unconscious of it?

He then undertook to get to know his myth, his "personal equation. In his revision of this text, Jung qualified this 29 "Address on the founding of the C. In Black Book 2, Jung noted that it was this dream that made him decide to embark on a relationship with a woman he had met three years earlier Toni Wolff. He gave particular importance to two of these, was something living down there. The first follows: apostles, the signs of the Zodiac, and so on, but that he "could make nothing out of the dream except that there was a tremendous I was in a southern town, on a rising street with narrow half animation of the unconscious.

I knew no technique of getting at the landings. It was twelve o'clock midday-bright sunshine. Someone says, "that is one who cannot childhood memories, but this did not resolve anything. He realized die. He died already years ago, but has not yet managed that he needed to recover the emotional tone of childhood. He to decompose. Here a striking figure recalled that as a child, he used to like to build houses arid other came, a knight of powerful build, clad in yellowish armor.

He looks solid and inscrutable and nothing impresses him. While he was engaged in this self-analytic activity; he continued On his back he carries a red Maltese cross. He has continued to develop his theoretical work. At the Munich Psycho-Analytical to exist from the 12th century and daily between 12 and 1 Congress in September , he spoke on psychological types.

No one marvels at He argued that there were two basic movements of the libido: these two apparitions, but I was extremely surprised. As regards the old Austrian, the outer world, and introversion, in which the subject'S interest Freud occurred to me; as regards the knight, I myself was directed inward. Following from this, he posited two types Inside, a voice calls, "It is all empty and disgusting. The psychologies of Freud and Adler were examples of the fact that psychologies often took what was true of their Jung found this dream oppressive and bewildering, and Freud type as generally valid.

Hence what was required was a psychology was unable to interpret it. Suddenly a gull or a dove flew in and former relationships. Suddenly this bird turned into a child of eight feared that he would go mad. Then the could not imagine this, he concluded that he was "menaced with child suddenly turned into the gull or dove. She said the a psychosis.

I saw a blood-red glow, like the. It comes out of the times of Meister Eckhart, the time of the culture of the Knights, when many ideas blossomed, only to be killed again, but they are coming again to life now. However, when I had this dream, I did not know this interpretation" Analytical Psychology, p. Bennet noted Jung's comments on this dream: ''At first he thought the 'twelve dead men' referred to the twelve days before Christmas for that is the dark time of the year, when traditionally witches are about.

To say 'before Christmas' is to say 'before the sun lives again: for Christmas day is at the turning point of the year when the sun's birth was celebrated in the Mithraic religion In in "The psychological aspects of the Kore," Jung presented some material from Liber Novus describing them all as part of a dream series in an anonymous form "case Z.

He noted that this dream "shows the anima as elflike, i. She can just as well be a bird, which means that she may belong wholly to nature and can vanish i. See also Memories, pp. And at that time someone asked me what I thought about world events in the near future. I said that I had no thoughts, but saw blood, rivers ofblood. For example, in , Wassily Kandinsky wrote of a coming universal catastrophe. From to , Ludwig Meidner painted a series of works known as the apocalyptic landscapes, with scenes of destroyed cities, corpses, and turmoil.

In , the famous American medium Leonora Piper predicted that in the coming century there would be a terrible war in different parts of the world that would cleanse the world and reveal the truths of spiritualism. In , Arthur Conan Doyle, the spiritualist and author of the Sherlock Holmes stories, viewed this as having been propheticY In Jung's account of the fantasy on the train in Liber Novus, the inner voice said that what the fantasy depicted would become completely real.

Initially, he interpreted this subjectively and prospectively, that is, as depicting the imminent destruction of his world. His reaction to this experience was to undertake a psychological investigation of himself In this epoch, self-experimentation was used in medicine and psychology: Introspection had been one of the main tools of psychological research. Jung came to realize that Transformations and Symbols oj the Libido "could be taken as myself and that an analysis of it leads inevitably into an analysis of my own unconscious processes.

Up to this point, Jung had been an active thinker and had been averse to fantasy: "as a form of thinking I held it to be altogether impure, a sort of incestuous intercourse, thoroughly immoral from an intellectual viewpoint. Jung picked up the brown notebook, which he had set aside in , and began writing in it. In the seminar, he recalled that it occurred to him that he could write down his reflections in a sequence. He was "writing autobiographical material, but not as an autobiography.


In CE, St. Augustine wrote his SoliloqUies, which presented an extended dialogue between himself and "Reason," who instructs him. They commenced with the following lines: When I had been pondering many different things to myself for a long time, and had for many days been seeking my own self and what my own good was, and what evil was to be avoided, there suddenly spoke to me-what was it?

I myself or someone else, inside or outside me? Then I came to this, "Perhaps my unconscious is forming a personality that is not 1, but which is insisting on coming through to expression. Well I said very emphatically to this voice that what I was doing was not art, and I felt a great resistance grow up within me. No voice came" through, however, and I kept on writing. This time I caught her and said, "No it is not," and I felt as though an argument would ensue. I got remarks of a new character-I was in analysis with a ghost and a woman. The woman had thought that the unconscious was art, but Jung had maintained that it was nature.

In , he became a student of Augusto Giacometti's, the uncle of Alberto Giacometti, and an important early abstract painter in his own right. See Jay Winter,. Augustine, Soliloquies and Immortality ofthe Soul, ed. Watson notes that Augustine "had been through a period of intense strain, close to a nervous breakdown, and the Soliloquies are a form of therapy, an effort to cure himself by talking, or rather, writing" p.

In Jung's account here, it seems that this dialogue took place in the autumn of I, though this is not certain, because the dialogue itself does not occur in the Black Books, and no other manuscript has yet come to light. If this dating is followed, and in the absence of other material, it would appear that the material the voice is referring to is the November entries in Black Book 2, and not the subsequent text of Liber Novus or the paintings.

Private possession, Peter Riklin. Giacometti recalled: "Riklin's psychological knowledge was extraordinarily interesting and new to me. He was a modern magician. The November entries in Black Book 2 depict Jung's sense of his to the role of personifications. He recounted the dreams that led him to opt closely resembled a number of historical and contemporary for his scientific career, and the recent dreams that had brought practices with which he was familiar. From December onward, he carried on in the same him back to his soul.

As he recalled in , this first period of writing came to an end in November: "Not knowing what would procedure: deliberately evoking a fantasy in a waking state, and come next, I thought perhaps more introspection was needed These fantasies may be I devised such a boring method by fantasizing that I was digging understood as a type of dramatized thinking in pictorial form. In a hole, and by accepting this fantasy as perfectly real. Some of the figures and conceptions derive directly from such experiment took place on December 12, In the Black Books, Jung wrote to produce waking fantasies and visual hallucinations, and had down his fantasies in dated entries, together with reflections on conducted experiments with automatic writing.

Practices of his state of mind and his difficulties in comprehending the fantasies. The Black Books are not diaries of events, and very few dreams are For example, in the fifth of the spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius noted in them. Rather, they are the records of an experiment. In of Loyola, individuals are instructed on how to "see with the eyes December , he referred to the first of the black books as the of the imagination the length, breadth and depth of hell," and to "book of my most difficult experiment.

The example of dreams indicated the existence of background activity, and he wanted to give this a possibility of emerging, just as one does 26 JAN. He recalled for they have sometimes, and indeed often, directed my that beneath the threshold of consciousness, everything was! At times, it was as if he heard something. At other that they thought it was not I, but themselves writing. These images, the meaning of his fantasies, which continued to develop.

During he maintained, presented symbolic depictions of his previous this time, Philemon, who would prove to be an important figure in train of thought. Silberer corresponded with Jung and sent him subsequent fantasies, appeared in a dream. Jung recounted: offprints of his articles. It looked as if the clods of experimental chemistry; published a work entitled Magic were breaking apart and the blue water of the sea were as an Experimental Science.

Staudenmaier had embarked on selfbecoming visible between them. But the water was the blue experimentations in , commencing with automatic writing. Suddenly there appeared from the right a winged being A series of characters appeared, and he found that he no longer 65 sailing across the sky.

I saw that it was an old man with the needed to write to conduct dialogues with them. He also induced horns of a bull. He held a bunch of four keys, one of which acoustic and visual hallucinations. The aim of his enterprise he clutched as if he were about to open a lock. He had the was to use his self-experimentation to provide a scientific wings of the kingfisher with its characteristic colors.

Since I explanation of magic. He argued that the key to understanding did not understand this dream image, I painted it in order magic lay in the concepts of hallucinations and the "under to impress it upon my memory. Ignatius of Loyola, "The spiritual exercises," in Personal Writings, tr. Munitiz and P.

Endean London: Penguin, , p. I London: Bath, , pp. In Jung's copy of this work, he marked the second half of this passage with a line in the margin. To Margaret Ostrowski-Sachs, Jung said "The technique of active imagination can prove very important in difficult situations-where there is a visitation, say. It only makes sense when one has the feeling of being up against a blank wall.

I experienced this when I separated from Freud. I did not know what I thought. I only felt, 'It is not so. I appealed to my hands and began to carve wood-and then my way became clear" From Conversations with C. Jung [Zurich: Juris Druck Verlag, ], p. While he was painting this image, he found a dead kingfisher which is very rarely found in the vicinity of Z urich in his garden by the lake shore?

The figure of Philemon first appears in the Black Books on January 27, , but without kingfisher wings. To Jung, Philemon represented superior insight, and was like a guru to him. He would converse with him in the garden. He recalled that Philemon evolved out of the figure of Elijah, who had previously appeared in his fantasies: Philemon was a pagan and brought with him an EgyptoHellenic atmosphere with a Gnostic coloration It was he who taught me psychic objectivity, the reality of the psyche. Through the conversations with Philemon, the distinction was clarified between myself and the object of my thought Psychologically; Philemon represented superior insight.

On April 30, he resigned asa lecturer in the medical faculty of the University of Zurich. He recalled that he felt that he was in an exposed position at the university and felt that he had to find a new orientation, as it would otherwise be unfair to teach students. In the minutes, the reason given for the secession was that Freud had established an orthodoxy that impeded free and independent research. Jung was actively involved in this association, which met fortnightly. He also maintained a busy therapeutic practice. Between and , he had between one and nine consultations per day, five days a week, with an average of between five and seven.

He does not refer to his fantasies, and continues to discuss theoretical issues in psychology. The same holds true in his surviving correspondences during this period. Jung recalled that during this period his family and profession "always remained a joyful reality and a guarantee that I was normal and really existed. The shortcoming of the former was that through tracing things back to antecedent elements, it dealt with only half of the picture, and failed to grasp the living meaning of phenomena.

Someone who attempted to understand Goethe's Faust in such a manner would be like someone who tried to understand a Gothic cathedral under its mineralogical aspect. Hence the constructive standpoint asked, "how, out of this present psyche, a bridge can be built into its own future. Presented as a critique and reformulation of psychoanalysis, Jung's new mode of interpretation links back to the symbolic method of Swedenborg's spiritual hermeneutics.

On July 28, Jung gave a talk on "The importance of the unconscious in psychopathology" at a meeting of the British Medical Association in Aberdeen. The unbalanced individual defends himself against this, and the opposites become more polarized. The corrective impulses that present themselves in the language of the unconscious should be the beginning of a healing process, but the form in which they break through makes them unacceptable to consciousness.

On August I, war broke out. In Jung recalled, "I had the feeling that I was an over-compensated psychosis, and from this feeling I was not released till August 1st I was just preparing a lecture on schizophrenia to be delivered at a congress in Aberdeen, and I kept saying to myself: "I'll be speaking of myself! Very likely I'll go mad after reading out this paper. On July 31"r, immediately after my lecture, I learned from the newspapers that war had broken out.

Finally I understood. And when I disembarked in Holland on the next day; nobody was happier than 1. Now I was sure that no schizophrenia was threatening me. I understood that my dreams and my visions came to me from the subsoil of the collective unconscious. What remained for. And this is what I have been trying to do for forty years. In other words, that it was a precognition of a collective event, what he would later call a "big" dream. This effort makes up much of the subject matter of Liber Novus. In Scrutinies, he wrote that the outbreak of the war had enabled him to understand much of what he had previously experienced, and had given him the courage to write the earlier part of Liber NOVUS.

It is no exaggeration to say that had war not been declared, Liber Novus would in all likelihood not have been compiled. Image of a dead hero and the slaying of Siegfried in a dream. She shows him images of destruction, military weapons, human remains, sunken ships, destroyed states, etc. MAY 21, A voice says that the sacrificed fall left and right.

Liber Novus Jung now commenced wfltlng the draft of Liber Novus. He faithfully transcribed most of the fantasies from the Black Books, and to each of these added a section explaining the significance of each episode, combined with a lyrical elaboration. Word-by-word comparison indicates that the fantasies were faithfully reproduced, with only minor editing and division into chapters.

Thus the sequence of the fantasies in Liber Novus nearly always exactly corresponds to the Black Books. When it is indicated that a particular fantasy happened "on the next night," etc. The language and content of the material were not altered. Jung maintained a "fidelity to the event," and what he was writing was not to be mistaken for a fiction. The draft begins with the address to "My friends," and this phrase occurs frequently.

The main difference between the Black Books and Liber Novus is that the former were written for Jung's personal use, and can be considered the records of an experiment, while the latter is addressed to a public and presented in a form to be read by others. In November , Jung closely studied Nietzsche's Thus Spoke zarathustra, which he had first read in his youth. He later recalled, "then suddenly the spirit seized me and carried me to a desert country in which I read Zarathustra.

Lilce Nietzsche in zarathustra, Jung divided the material into a series of books comprised of short chapters. But whereas Zarathustra proclaimed the death of God, LiberNovus depicts the rebirth of God in the soul. There are also indications that he read Dante's Commedia at this time, which also informs the structure of the work. But whereas Dante could utilize an established cosmology, Liber N ovus is an attempt to shape an individual cosmology. In the Draft, about 50 percent of the material is drawn directly from the Black Books.

There are about thirty-five new sections of commentary. In these sections, he attempted to derive general psychological principles from the fantasies, and to understand to what extent the events portrayed in the fantasies presented, in a symbolic form, developments that were to occur in the world. In , Jung had introduced a distinction between interpretation on the objective level in which dream objects were treated as representations of real objects, and interpretation on the subjective level in which every element concerns the dreamers themselves.

He does not try to interpret his fantasies reductively, but sees them as depicting the functioning 2. Combat interview I , C. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters, eds. William McGuire and R. I, 23I, , 24I, , , , N ietzsche-Revisionen im Jahrhundert, eds. Renate Reschke Berlin I , pp. See below; note 2I3, p. Thus the second layer of the Draft represents the first major and extended attempt to develop and apply his new constructive method. The second layer is itself a hermeneutic experiment. In a critical sense, Liber Novus does not require supplemental interpretation, for it contains its own interpretation.

In writing the Draft, Jung did not add scholarly references, though unreferenced citations and allusions to works of philosophy, religion, and literature abound. He had self-consciously chosen to leave scholarship to one side. Yet the fantasies and the reflections on them in the Red Book are those of a scholar and, indeed, much of the self-experimentation and the composition of Liber N ovus took place in his library.

It is quite possible that he might have added references if he had decided to publish the work After completing the handwritten Draft, Jung had it typed, and edited it. On one manuscript, he made alterations by hand I refer to this manuscript as the Corrected Draft. Judging from the annotations, it appears that he gave it to someone the handwriting is not that of Emma Jung, Toni Wolff, or Maria Moltzer to read, who then commented on Jung's editing, indicating that some sections which he had intended to cut should be retained.

Jung then commissioned a large folio volume of over pages, bound in red leather, from the bookbinders, Emil Stierli. The spine bears the title, Liber Novus. He then inserted the parchment pages into the folio volume, which continues with Liber Secundus. The work is organized like a medieval illuminated manuscript, with calligraphic writing, headed by a table of abbreviations. Jung titled the first book "The Way of What is to Come," and placed beneath this some citations from the book of Isaiah and from the gospel according to John. Thus it was presented as a prophetic work In the Draft, Jung had divided the material into chapters.

In the course of the transcription into the red leather folio, he altered some of the titles to the chapters, added others, and edited the material once again. The cuts and alterations were predominantly to the second layer of interpretation and elaboration, and not to the fantasy material itself and mainly consisted in shortening the text. It is this second layer that Jung continually reworked. In the transcription of the text in this edition, this second layer has been indicated, so that the chronology and composition are visible.

As Jung's comments in the second layer sometimes implicitly refer forward to fantasies that are found later in the text, it is also helpful to read the fantasies straight through in chronological sequence, followed by a continuous reading of the second layer. Jung then illustrated the text with some paintings, historiated initials, ornamental borders, and margins. Initially, the paintings refer directly to the text.

At a later point, the paintings become. They are active imaginations in their own right. The combination of text and image recalls the illuminated works of William Blalce, whose work Jung had some familiarity with. Art and the Zurich School Jung's library today contains few books on modern art, though some books were probably dispersed over the years. He possessed a catalogue of the graphic works of Odilon Redon, as well as a study ofhim. Strong echoes of the symbolist movement appear in the paintings in Liber N ovus. In October of , Jung went on a bicycle tour of northern Italy, together with his colleague Hans Schmid.

They visited Ravenna, and the frescos and mosaics there made a deep impression on him. These works seemed to have had an impact on his paintings: the use of strong colors, mosaic-like forms, and two-dimensional figures without the use of perspective. IOO Here, he also referred to having studied the course of Picasso's paintings. Given the lack of evidence of extended study, Jung's knowledge of modern art probably derived more immediately from direct acquaintance.

During the First World War, there were contacts between the members of the Zurich school and artists. Both were part of avant-garde movements and intersecting social circles. Members of the Psychological Club were invited to some of the Dada events. At the celebration of the opening of the Gallery Dada on March 29,, Hugo Ball notes members of the Club in the audience. Sophie Taeuber, who had studied with Laban, arranged a dance class for members of the Club together with Arp. A masked ball was also held and she designed the costumes. I03 In , she presented a marionette play, King Deer, in Zurich.

It was set in the woods by the Burgholzli. Why cut? Jung evidently took this advice, and retained the original passages. On November II, , he wrote to Piloo Nanavutty; "I find Blake a tantalizing study, since he has compiled a lot of half- or undigested knowledge in his fantasies. According to my idea, they are an artistic production rather than an authentic representation of unconscious processes" Letters 2, pp. IOO Analytical Psychology, p. Flight Out of Time, p. Freud Analytikus, opposed by Dr. Oedipus Complex, is transformed into a parrot by the Ur- Libido, parodic ally talting up themes from Jung's Transformations and Symbols ofthe Libido and his conflict with Freud.

IOG The critical element that separated Jung's pictorial work from that of the Dadaists was his overriding emphasis on meaning and signification. Jung's self-explorations and creative experiments did not occur in a vacuum. During this period, there was great interest in art and painting within his circle.

Alphonse Maeder wrote a monograph on Ferdinand Hodler lO7 and had a friendly correspondence with him. IOB Around , Maeder had a series of visions or waking fantasies, which he published pseudonymously: When he told Jung of these events, Jung replied, "What, you toO? Moltzer was keen to increase the artistic activities of the Zurich school. She felt that more artists were needed in their circle and considered Riklin as a model.

Moltzer had a book that she called her Bible, in which she put pictures with writings. She recommended that her patient Fanny Bowditch Katz do the same thing. With his personal connections, Jung could easily have exhibited some of his works in such a setting, had he so liked. Thus his refusal to consider his works as art occurs in a context where there were quite real possibilities for him to have taken this route.

On some occasions, Jung discussed art with Erika Schlegel. She noted the following conversation: III. I wore my pearl medallion the pearl embroidery that Sophie had made for me at Jung's yesterday: He liked it very much, and it prompted him to talk animatedly about art-for almost an hour. He discussed Riklin, one of Augusto Giacometti's students, and observed that while his smaller works had a certain aesthetic value, his larger ones simply dissolved.

Indeed, he vanished wholly in his art, rendering him utterly intangible. His work was like a wall over which water rippled. He could therefore not analyze, as this required one to be pointed and sharp-edged, like a knife. He had fallen into art. But art and science were no more than the servants of the creative spirit, which is what must be served.

As regards my own work, it was also a matter of malting out whether it was really art. Fairy tales and pictures had a religious meaning at bottom. I, too, know that somehow and sometime it must reach people. This statement also indicates Jung's relativization of the status of art and science to which he had come through his self-experimentation.

Thus, the making of Liber Novus was by no means a peculiar and idiosyncratic activity, nor the product of a psychosis. Rather, it indicates the close intersections between psychological and artistic experimentation with which many individuals were engaged at this time. The Collective Experiment In , Jung held a lengthy correspondence with his colleague Hans Schmid on the question of the understanding of psychological types.

This correspondence gives no direct signs of Jung's self-experimentation, and indicates that theories he developed during this period did not stem solely from his active imaginations, but also in part consisted of conventional psychological theorizing. Until I had to join the army I lived quietly and devoted my time to my patients and to my work.

I was especially working about the two types of psychology and about the synthesis of unconscious tendencies. He recalled that he experienced great fear, and sometimes had to hold the table to keep himself together,IIG and "I was frequently so wrought up that I had to eliminate the emotions through yoga practices. Jung found that he could discuss his experiences with her, but she was disorientated and in the same mess.

On another occasion, Katz notes in her diary that Moltzer "spoke of Art, real art, being the expression of religion" August 24, I9I6. On Lang, see Thomas Feitknecht, ed. II7 Memories, p. II8 MP, p. Consequently; he noted, "that I was able to endure at all was a case of brute force.

At its inception, it had approximately sixty members. For Jung, the aim of the Club was to study the relation of individuals to the group, and to provide a naturalistic setting for psychological observation to overcome the limitations of one-toone analysis, as well as to provide a venue where patients could learn to adapt to social situations. At the same time, a professional body of analysts continued to meet together as the Association for Analytical Psychology.

Jung's self-experimentation also heralded a change in his analytic work. He encouraged his patients to embark upon similar processes of self-experimentation. Patients were instructed on how to conduct active imagination, to hold inner dialogues, and to paint their fantasies. He took his own experiences as paradigmatic. In the I seminar, he noted: "I drew all my empirical material from my patients, but the solution of the problem I drew frDm the inside, from my observations of the unconscious processes.

One night your boy began to rave in his sleep and throw himself about saying he couldn't wake up. But quite unexpectedly he asked for paper and colored pencils and set to work to make the following picture-a man was angling for fishes with hook and line in the middle of the picture. On the left was the Devil saying something to the man, and your son wrote down what he said. It was that he had come for the fisherman because he was catching his fishes, but on the right was an angel who said, "No you can't take this man, he is talcing only bad fishes and none of the good ones.

The same night, two of your daughters thought that they had seen spooks in their rooms. The next day you wrote out the "Sermons to the Dead," and you knew after that nothing more would disturb your family, and nothing did. Of course I knew you were the fisherman in your son's picture, and you told me so, but the boy didn't know it. In those early days, when one arrived for the analytic hour, the so-called "red book" often stood open on an easel. In it Dr. Jung had been painting or had just finished a picture. Sometimes he would show me what he had done and comment upon it.